Language Arts

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7th Grade Language Arts
Literature Standards:
Key Ideas and Details
1. Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text.
 3. Analyze how particular elements of a story or drama interact (e.g., how setting shapes the characters or plot). 
Craft and Structure
4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of rhymes and other repetitions of sounds (e.g., alliteration) on a specific verse or stanza of a poem or section of a story or drama.
 5. Analyze how a drama’s or poem’s form or structure (e.g., soliloquy, sonnet) contributes to its meaning. 
6. Analyze how an author develops and contrasts the points of view of different characters or narrators in a text. 
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
7. Compare and contrast a written story, drama, or poem to its audio, filmed, staged, or multimedia version, analyzing the effects of techniques unique to each medium (e.g., lighting, sound, color, or camera focus and angles in a film). 
8. (Not applicable to literature) 
9. Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history.
 Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 

10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.


Informational Text Standards:
 Key Ideas and Details 
1. Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. 

2. Determine two or more central ideas in a text and analyze their development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text. 

3. Analyze the interactions between individuals, events, and ideas in a text (e.g., how ideas influence individuals or events, or how individuals influence ideas or events). 

Craft and Structure

 4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone.

 5. Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to the development of the ideas.

 6. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author distinguishes his or her position from that of others.

 Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

 7. Compare and contrast a text to an audio, video, or multimedia version of the text, analyzing each medium’s portrayal of the subject (e.g., how the delivery of a speech affects the impact of the words).

 8. Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims

. 9. Analyze how two or more authors writing about the same topic shape their presentations of key information by emphasizing different evidence or advancing different interpretations of facts.

 Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 

10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Writing Standards:
Text Types and Purposes 
1. Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence
. a. Introduce claim(s), acknowledge alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically. 
b. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
 c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), reasons, and evidence. 
d. Establish and maintain a formal style.
 e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

 2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
 a. Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
 b. Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
 c. Use appropriate transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
 d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. 
e. Establish and maintain a formal style.
 f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the information or explanation presented.

 3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structures event sequences.
 a. Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
 b. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
 c. Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another. 
d. Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action 8 and convey experiences and events
. e. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events

. Production and Distribution of Writing 
4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.) 

5. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grade 7 on page 53.) 

6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and link to and cite sources as well as to interact and collaborate with others, including linking to and citing sources

. Research to Build and Present Knowledge
 7. Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions for further research and investigation

. 8. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

 9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
 a. Apply grade 7 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history”). 
b. Apply grade 7 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims”). 

Range of Writing
 10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter t
8th Grade Language Arts
Literature Standards:

Key Ideas and Details

 1. Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

 2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to the characters, setting, and plot; provide an objective summary of the text. 

3. Analyze how particular lines or dialogue or incidents in a story or drama propel the action, reveal aspects of a character, or provoke a decision.

 Craft and Structure 

4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts.

 5. Compare and contrast the structure of two or more texts and analyze how the differing structure of each text contributes to its meaning and style.

 6. Analyze how differences in the points of view of the characters and the audience or reader (e.g., created through the use of dramatic irony) create such effects as suspense or humor. 

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 

7. Analyze the extent to which a filmed or live production of a story or drama stays faithful to or departs from the text or script, evaluating the choices made by the director or actors. 

8. (Not applicable to literature) 

9. Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works such as the Bible, including describing how the material is rendered new.

 Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 

10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Informational Text Standards


Key Ideas and Details
 1. Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. 

2. Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to supporting ideas; provide an objective summary of the text.

 3. Analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events (e.g., through comparisons, analogies, or categories).

 Craft and Structure

 4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts.

 5. Analyze in detail the structure of a specific paragraph in a text, including the role of particular sentences in developing and refining a key concept.

 6. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author acknowledges and responds to conflicting evidence or viewpoints

. Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

 7. Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different mediums (e.g., print or digital text, video, multimedia) to present a particular topic or text.

 8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced.

 9. Analyze a case in which two or more texts provide conflicting information on the same topic and identify where the texts disagree on matters of fact or interpretation.

 Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 

10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

Writing Standards:
Text Types and Purposes 
1. Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
 a. Introduce claim(s), acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
 b. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
 c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence
. d. Establish and maintain a formal style
. e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

 2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
 a. Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
 b. Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
 c. Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts
. d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
 e. Establish and maintain a formal style.
 f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented. 

3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structures event sequences. 
a. Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
 b. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, and reflection, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
 c. Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time 8 frame or setting to another, and show the relationships among experiences and events. 
d. Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events.
 e. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events.

 Production and Distribution of Writing 
4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1-3 above.) 

5. With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grade 8 on page 53.) 

6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas efficiently as well as to interact and collaborate with others.

 Research to Build and Present Knowledge
 7. Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration

. 8. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

 9. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. 
a. Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works such as the Bible, including describing how the material is rendered new”).
 b. Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced”). 

Range of Writing 
10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.